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Law in Context: The Internationalisation of Criminal Evidence

Law in Context: The Internationalisation of Criminal Evidence Beyond the Common Law and Civil Law Traditions

  • Author:
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN: 9780521688475
  • Published In: January 2012
  • Format: Paperback , 442 pages
  • Jurisdiction: International ? Disclaimer:
    Countri(es) stated herein are used as reference only

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  • Contents 
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    Although there are many texts on the law of evidence, surprisingly few are devoted specifically to the comparative and international aspects of the subject. The traditional view that the law of evidence belongs within the common law tradition has obscured the reality that a genuinely cosmopolitan law of evidence is being developed in criminal cases across the common law and civil law traditions. By considering the extent to which a coherent body of common evidentiary standards is being developed in both domestic and international jurisprudence, John Jackson and Sarah Summers chart this development with particular reference to the jurisprudence on the right to a fair trial that has emerged from the European Court of Human Rights and to the attempts in the new international criminal tribunals to fashion agreed approaches towards the regulation of evidence.

    • Proposes a new conception of the law of criminal evidence across different legal traditions that gives students and practitioners a fresh perspective on the topic

    • Systematic analysis of the way in which international bodies and courts such as the European Court of Human Rights and the international criminal tribunals have been developing the law of criminal evidence provides students, practitioners and policymakers with a detailed knowledge and critique of the international jurisprudence on criminal evidence

    • Examines the impact of international jurisprudence on the law of criminal evidence in both common law and civil systems, thus shedding light on the development of the law of criminal evidence across the common law/civil law divide

  • Foreword
    xiv
    Preface and acknowledgements
    xvi
    Abbreviations
    xix
    Table of international cases
    xxii
    Part I    Evidentiary contexts
    1
    1         Evidence across traditions
    3
    1.1       Introduction: the convergence debate
    3
    1.2       Comparative evidence scholarship
    9
    1.3       The rationalist tradition and the rights tradition
    14
    1.4       Towards shared evidentiary principles
    19
    1.5       Beyond the common and civil law traditions
    27
    2         The common law tradition
    30
    2.1       Introduction: free proof and the common law
    30
    2.2       Common law conceptions of the law of evidence
    34
    2.3       Evidence law adrift?
    38
    2.4       Challenges to free proof
    40
    2.4.1     The epistemic challenge
    41
    2.4.2     The scientific challenge
    45
    2.4.3     The constitutional challenge
    50
    2.5       Conclusion
    55
    3         Evidential traditions in continental European jurisdictions
    57
    3.1       Introduction
    57
    3.2       The development of criminal evidence law and the movement towards ‘freedom of proof’
    58
    3.3       The importance of the nineteenth-century procedural reforms
    66
    3.4       Freedom of proof and restrictions on the doctrine in modern evidence law
    69
    3.5       Excluding or prohibiting the use of evidence
    72
    3.6       Recent developments in evidence law
    74
    3.7       Conclusion
    76
    4         The international human rights context
    77
    4.1       Introduction
    77
    4.2       The evolution of evidentiary human rights norms
    79
    4.2.1     The right to a fair trial
    79
    4.2.2     The equality of arms principle
    83
    4.2.3     The right to an adversarial trial
    86
    4.3       The process of proof and the regulation of the investigation/pre-trial phase
    95
    4.3.1     Defence rights and the importance of the procedural environment
    97
    4.3.2     Potential for pre-trial activities to impinge on defence rights
    99
    4.4       Towards convergence or realignment?
    101
    4.5       Conclusion
    106
    5         Evidence in the international criminal tribunals
    108
    5.1       Towards an international system of justice
    108
    5.2       Problems of legitimacy
    110
    5.2.1     Function and purpose of international criminal trials
    111
    5.2.2     The evidentiary context
    112
    5.2.3     Reaching agreed rules of procedure and evidence
    115
    5.3       Common law foundations
    116
    5.4       The ad hoc tribunals
    119
    5.5       Rubbing points between the common law and the civil law
    124
    5.6       The need for realignment
    131
    5.6.1     The right to equality of arms
    133
    5.6.2     The right to an adversarial trial
    136
    5.7       Towards the future and the International Criminal Court
    140
    5.8       Conclusion
    145
    Part II   Evidentiary rights
    149
    6         Fair trials and the use of improperly obtained evidence
    151
    6.1       Introduction
    151
    6.2       Theories explaining the exclusion of improperly obtained evidence
    153
    6.3       Evidence obtained by way of torture, inhuman or degrading treatment
    158
    6.3.1     Evidence obtained by way of torture
    160
    6.3.2     Evidence obtained by way of inhuman or degrading treatment
    163
    6.3.3     Fairness and evidence obtained by recourse to torture or ill-treatment
    166
    6.4       Deception, coercion, traps and tricks
    169
    6.4.1     Wiretapping and covert surveillance
    171
    6.4.2     De facto ‘interrogation’ of suspects in custody
    175
    6.4.3     De facto ‘questioning’ of suspects not in custody
    179
    6.4.4     Fairness and the use of evidence obtained by deception and coercion
    181
    6.5       Entrapment
    188
    6.6       Fruit of the poisonous tree
    191
    6.7       Conclusion: improperly obtained evidence, fairness and the under-regulated pre-trial/investigative process
    194
    7         The presumption of innocence
    199
    7.1       Introduction
    199
    7.2       The meaning of the presumption of innocence
    200
    7.2.1     The presumption as an evidentiary protection
    200
    7.2.2     Treating defendants as innocent
    205
    7.2.3     Substantive innocence
    208
    7.3       The presumption of innocence and the rationalist tradition
    211
    7.4       The presumption and fair trial standards
    215
    7.5       The scope of the presumption of innocence under human rights law
    217
    7.6       Reversal of the burden of proof
    221
    7.7       Avoiding prejudice
    228
    7.7.1     An independent and impartial tribunal
    229
    7.7.2     Participatory rights
    233
    7.7.3     The right to a reasoned judgment
    237
    7.8       Conclusion
    239
    8         Silence and the privilege against self-incrimination
    241
    8.1       The historical and transnational importance of the right of silence
    241
    8.2       The scope of the privilege in international law
    246
    8.2.1     The international instruments
    246
    8.2.2     Funke v. France
    248
    8.2.3     Charged with a criminal offence
    250
    8.2.4     Incrimination
    251
    8.2.5     Compulsion
    252
    8.2.6     Defiance of the will of the suspect
    253
    8.3       Exception to the rights against self-incrimination and of silence
    256
    8.3.1     The public interest
    256
    8.3.2     Other factors
    258
    8.3.3     Inferences from silence
    260
    8.4       Rationale of the privilege and the right of silence
    266
    8.5       The right of silence as a necessary condition for active defence participation
    273
    8.6       Incorporating fair trials standards from the point of being called to account
    277
    8.7       Conclusion
    283
    9         Defence participation
    285
    9.1       Introduction: legal representation and self-representation
    285
    9.2       The right to effective legal assistance
    289
    9.2.1     Early legal assistance
    289
    9.2.2     Communication with counsel
    289
    9.2.3     Right to private communication and legal professional privilege
    291
    9.2.4     Balancing away the privilege
    293
    9.3       The right to full disclosure of evidence
    295
    9.3.1     The case against the accused
    295
    9.3.2     The scope of the right to disclosure: Jespers and Edwards
    297
    9.3.3     Uncertainties as to scope
    301
    9.3.4     An absolute right?
    304
    9.4       Common law shortcomings
    307
    9.5       Beyond disclosure: access to evidence outside the possession of the prosecution
    310
    9.5.1     Defence investigations
    310
    9.5.2     Application to the court
    312
    9.6       Public interest immunity
    316
    9.6.1     The principle of judicial scrutiny
    317
    9.6.2     Adversarial argument
    319
    9.7       Conclusion
    323
    10        Challenging witness evidence
    325
    10.1      Introduction
    325
    10.2      Justifying the right to challenge incriminatory witness evidence
    327
    10.3      The regulation of the right to challenge witness evidence: the human rights perspective
    334
    10.3.1    The importance of the witness evidence: the sole or decisive test
    338
    10.3.2    An adequate and proper opportunity to challenge the witness
    342
    10.3.2.1  The significance of the procedural environment: principal versus preliminary proceedings
    342
    10.3.2.2  The circumstances of witness hearing: the importance of an impartial judge and the right to counsel
    345
    10.3.2.3  Obligation to organise the witness examination hearing
    349
    10.3.2.4  Restrictions on the defence's opportunity to challenge the witness
    351
    10.3.2.5  The substantive sufficiency of the opportunity to challenge the witness
    356
    10.3.3    Defence obligations, waiver and forfeiture
    359
    10.3.4    Challenging expert witnesses
    361
    10.4      Conclusion
    362
    11        Towards a theory of evidentiary defence rights
    367
    11.1      Beyond tradition
    367
    11.2      Prospects for evidentiary defence rights
    371
    11.3      Victims’ rights and participation
    372
    11.4      State security and terrorism
    380
    11.5      Cost and expedition
    384
    11.6      Legal culture and tradition
    387
    Index
    392
  • John D. Jackson
    University College Dublin

    Sarah J. Summers
    Rechtswissenschaftliches Institut, Universität Zürich

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